K M
N
Q
A
American Style Option
An option contract that can be exercised on any business day before
it expires. (see option below)
B
Bear Spread
The purchase of a put option (see below) priced close to the money
strike price against the sale of a put option with an outofthemoney
strike price. A long position of bear spread implies anticipation
of a price fall.
Binomial Option Pricing Model
An optionpricing model where the price of an asset is calculated
over successive short periods of time, based on the assumption that
only two discrete price movements are possible in each time period.
BlackScholes Option Pricing Model
An optionpricing model developed by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes.
It is commonly used in pricing of an option. It factors in current
asset price, strike price, time until expiration, any dividends,
implied volatility of the underlying asset, and interest rate levels.
Bull Spread
The purchase of a call option with a close to the money strike price
against the sale of a call option with a outofthemoney strike
price. A long position of bull spread implies anticipation of a
price rise.
Butterfly Spread
The sale (purchase) of two options with intermediate strike prices
together with the purchase (sale) of an option with a higher strike
and another with a lower strike. All options have the same expiration
date on the same underlying asset.
C
Calendar Spread
The purchase of an option against the sale of another option with
the same strike price but different expiration dates.
Call Option
An option in which the buyer pays a premium price for the right,
but not the obligation, to purchase a specified amount of an underlying
asset from the option writer at a fixed strike price within a specified
period of time.
Convertible bond
A bond that permits the holder to convert to the common shares of
the issuer at a fixed conversion price during the life or at maturity
of the bond. This bond combines the features of a fixed income security
and the option of conversion into a specified number of shares.
Covered Call
A long position in an asset combined with a short position in a
call option on the asset, where the asset position will cover the
obligation of the call in case it is exercised.
Covered Put
A long position in cash combined with a short position in a put
option on any asset, where the cash position will cover the obligation
of the put in case it is exercised.
D
Delta
The rate of change of an option's price with respect to the price
movement of the underlying asset. The delta of a call is always
positive, while the delta of a put is always negative.
Delta Neutral Portfolio
When the delta of a derivatives portfolio is zero, the value of
the portfolio will be insensitive to a change in the price of the
underlying asset.
Derivative
A financial instrument whose value is derived from the value of
another investment vehicle, called the underlying asset.
E
Equity Linked Note (ELN)
See Understand SIP  ELN
European Style Option
An option contract that can be exercised only on the expiration
date.
ExDividend
Only investors holding a stock purchased before the exdividend
date are entitled to receive the dividend; holders of a short position
in the stock are obliged to pay out the dividend.
Expiration Date
The final date on which the option may be exercised.
F
Fair Value
A theoretical value of an option derived by an optionpricing model
such as the BlackScholes or Binomial option pricing model. (see
Binomial Option Pricing Model and BlackScholes Option Pricing Model.)
G
Gamma
The rate of change of delta with respect to the price movement of
the underlying asset.
H
Hedge
A strategy used to reduce risk exposure by making a transaction
to offset the risk of the existing position.
Historic Volatility
Historical volatility is a retrospective measure that directly estimates
the volatility of an underlying asset based on data of its past
performance.
I
Inthemoney
A call is inthemoney when the market price of underlying asset
is greater than the strike price. A put is inthemoney when the
market price of underlying asset is less than the strike price.
Implied Volatility
A forward looking view of the volatility of the price of the underlying
asset derived from option pricing models such as BlackScholes,
that take into consideration other factors including the option
price, strike (exercise) price, interest rate and maturity date.
Intrinsic Value
The difference between an inthemoney option strike price and the
current market price of the underlying asset. The intrinsic value
of an outthe money option is always zero.
L
Liquidity
The efficiency of liquidating or establishing a position in the
market without disrupting the existing market prices. Liquidity
is often taken to refer to the ease with which assets can be traded.
A liquid market means a market where it is easy to buy and sell
assets.
O
Onthemoney Option (Atthemoney Option)
A call is onthemoney when the market price of the underlying asset
is equal to the strike price.
Option
The right to buy an asset, most often securities, on a set date
for a specified amount.
Option Holder
The buyer of an option.
Option Writer
The seller of an option.
P
Principal Guaranteed Note (PGN)
See Understand
SIP  PGN.
Put Option
An option in which the buyer pays a premium price for the right,
but not the obligation, to sell a specified amount of an underlying
asset to the option writer at a fixed price within a specified period
of time. Put options are purchased by investors anticipating a fall
in price of the underlying asset.
R
Ratio Spread
A spread transaction in which two or more related options are traded
in a specified proportion. Ratio spread forms when the number of
options bought differ from the number of options sold. The spread
can vary .
Ratio Call Spread
In anticipation of a price rise of an underlying asset, a trader
may buy two call options with a higher strike price and sell one
call option with a lower strike price.
Ratio Put Spread
In anticipation of a price decline of an underlying asset, a trader
may buy one put option with a higher strike price and sell two put
options with a lower strike price.
Rho
The rate of change of the price of an option caused by fluctuations
in interest rates.
S
Series( for options)
All option contracts of the same class bearing the same unit of
trade, expiration date, and exercise price.
Short Position
A position taken by an investor anticipating a fall in the price
of an asset.
Straddle
An option strategy involving a call and a put on the same underlying
assets with the same expiration date and the same strike price.
A long straddle means buying both calls and puts while a short straddle
means selling both calls and puts.
Strangle
A position consisting of a long (or short) call and a long (or short)
put on the same underlying asset, both options have the same expiration
date, but different strike prices. Most strangles involve outthe
money options.
Strike Price (Exercise Price)
The price at which the underlying asset under a call or put option
can be purchased (call) or sold (put).
Structured Investment Product (SIP)
A Structured Investment Product (SIP) is an investment product that
is structured to meet investor's individual riskreturn criteria.
The return or reward profile may not necessarily be the same as
that derived from investing directly in the underlying asset. SIPs
are normally a combination of bond, asset, and derivative instruments.
Refer to Understanding
SIP.
T
Theoretical value
An option value generated by a mathematical option's pricing model
to determine what an option is worth theoretically.
Theta
The rate at which the price of an option changes over a period of
time (e.g. one day)
Time Decay
The process whereby the value of an option premium is eroded as
expiry approaches.
V
Vega
The rate of change of the price of an option with volatility.
Volatility
A measure of the expected price fluctuation of an underlying asset
in a given period of time. Volatility is a primary determinant in
evaluating the option's premium and time value.
Volatility Skew
A theory stating that a deeply outofthemoney option tends to
have higher implied volatility levels than an atthemoney option.
Volatility skew measures and accounts for the limitations found
in most options pricing models and gives the trader an edge in estimating
an option's value.
W
Warrant
A security entitling the holder to buy a proportionate amount of
stock at a specified future date and at a specified price, usually
one higher than the current market price. Warrants are traded as
securities whose price reflects the value of the underlying stock.
Warrants are like call options, but with much longer time spans
 sometimes years.
Y
Yield
The percentage return on an investment relative to the amount invested.
Z
Zero Coupon Bond
A bond that does not pay any interest before maturity but is sold
at a discount to its redemption value. The entire principal amount
is due for repayment at maturity. The value of the bond is equal
to the discount value of the principal amount derived from prevailing
interest rates and/or the prevailing credit spread.
